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Marx, Nietzsche and Ideology

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The theme of comparing and analyzing of Marx and Nietzsche political views is not actually new. Especially it became important after the World War II and confrontation between two systems: communism and capitalism. However, Western official science was stressed on their principal disagreement and the split in the main thesis. Marx’s and Nietzsche’s works have the similar views on the radical crisis of the capitalism system and its aspects in general. They are both agreed on the idea of its destroying and creation of a new society, free from liberal, sentimental and, in the same time, hypocritical humanism. Both scientists were against gradualism. They advocated for the fast and deep changes in the social processes, so called “antireform”, in order to cause radical and nonreversible changes in the whole society.

According to Marx and Nietzsche, all our social institutions, in an extended context such as art, politics, religion and mass culture, are originally the ideological definitions. The system takes part in every step of our social creation and development, from the early childhood to senility. Right after the birth we find ourselves in a complex net of social relationships that makes us drawn into a society. During the time we become older, the system inoculates its values and gets information about us through the different channels and leverage such as hand-made religion beliefs, mass culture and social structures. According to Marx and Nietzsche, because the social structures are generated by the system and are serving its needs, they are unable to produce qualitative changes in social life.

Two great humanists of the 19th century, Marx and Nietzsche, lined up their philosophical creed on the basis of the paradoxes. They denied the morality as a value in itself, separated from the actual human life and dictated it from the top. Religious and philosophical traditions, proclaiming that morality is all for us, are opposed to a radical innovation. A person by itself is the absolute moral, but the morality from this perspective as well as religion and philosophy is detached from actual human life form. It disappeared and exists only in the form of an ideological bastion of hypocrisy; moreover, is inevitable.

The problem of freedom achievement is the main thesis in both scientists’ theories. People must reach the stage when all spiritual forms will be condescended into a life. Thus, Marx and Nietzsche were solving one common problem, highlighting the different aspects of human life itself. They launched a ship of classic philosophizing, from transcendental universality to his inherent universality, disclosed in specialized aspects of philosophical anthropology.  The aspects included the political, economic, social, axiological and aesthetic issues.

Considering the problem of freedom Marx gives priorities to active people who are able to overcome passive forms of existence. Freedom in its theoretical interpretation is an equivalent to the self-determination of the spirit which seeks self- understanding in its practical forms and democracy in general. Perfect freedom is a freedom of the mind only. So, if we want to understand a particular meaning of freedom, we need to study the practical definition of freedom first.  

According to Marx and Nietzsche, freedom and necessity are the interconnected aspects of the historical process of all the humanity. Due to this understanding, a person is not a passive product of circumstances. Freedom, first of all, means the positive role of private property as well as the comprehension of human nature needs. It is the recognition of the need to have a choice. One attains real freedom only in a situation when his religion, philosophy and morality do not teach how to live, looking down at history. Instead of this, freedom shows up merging with life in a rush, at the time of revelation and only in the real moment.

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