The Endocrine System
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The endocrine system plays a special role of the regulatory system in the human body. This system performs its function with the use of hormones, which it produces. These hormones go into all organs and tissues of the body, penetrating through the intercellular substance directly into the cells, or they are carried by blood to the biological systems. Some parts of the endocrine cells pull together and form the endocrine glands - glandular apparatus. In such a way, almost any body tissue has endocrine cells. The glands, called endocrine or endocrine glands have no ducts, and they are located in different parts of the body, but are closely related functionally. Hormones are an important issue in reproductive health. It also depends on psychology, nutrition, movement, habits, liver and other drainage systems.
In general, adverse effects on the central nervous system as a result of the active substances appear individually. They can be very significant and lead to serious irreversible consequences, and may disappear after the termination of their admission, depending on the specific drug and dosage.
Since testosterone and anabolic steroids have hormonal activity, it is natural to expect their effects on the endocrine system. The administration of high concentrations of anabolic steroids for a long time suppresses synthesis of testosterone, which leads to a decreased concentration of it in the blood, testicular atrophy, etc. Sperm loses mobility and ability to penetrate the egg, and sperm count decreases as well. The boys ascertained early puberty and disruption in growth to the fact that part of the testosterone and anabolic hormones are released in the process of metabolism of estradiol, thus there is a feminization of the male body. This is reflected in gynecomastia - the growth of the breast in 65% of adolescents and 40% of adult men. Experts believe that the decline of fertility rate, change in sexual desire and impotence are the most striking clinical manifestations of the so-called anabolic drug syndrome, common in athletes, which is a new disease of the civilized society. Anabolic steroids also affect the adrenal cortex, which regulates electrolyte metabolism and the exchange of water in the body.
The structural basis of all tissues of living organisms is made out of proteins, so any tissue hypertrophy, including muscle, is closely related to the intensity of synthesis and catabolism of protein in a given tissue. It is well established that regular exercise causes hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by the increase in muscle mass of solids. Under the influence of exercise, the muscle content of contractile proteins increases - myosin and actin, sarcoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins and muscle enzymes.
Researches found out that exercise inhibits protein synthesis in the muscle tissue during the exercise and activates protein catabolism during the initial recovery. Consequently, the functional muscle hypertrophy occurs due to the activation of protein synthesis, not by reducing the intensity of protein but rather while maintaining the same level of intensity of protein synthesis.
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In skeletal muscle, there are several types of muscle fibers with different contractile and metabolic properties. The main types fibers are slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch and fast twitch fibers have different rates of excitation, contraction and fatigue. Thus, the rate of reduction of first ones is more than 0.1 s, and the second ones - 0.05 s.
Testing the supposition between the old man (n = 9, 69 +/- 2 years) and old woman (n = 5, 66 +/- 1 years), we could say the female has better opposition-training of myofiber if doing exercises 3 times per week for about 6 month.
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