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BX Enviro Legislation

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Theodore Roosevelt
The ‘Forest Reserve Act of 1891’ to instate U.S. Forest Services and set aside 150 million acres of land as forest reserves. This act established 51 Federal Bird Reservations, 4 National Game Preserves, 150 National Forests, 5 National Parks under the Forest Reserve Act.  (1)
The ‘National Reclamation Act of 1902’, which directed that proceeds from the sale of public lands be used to finance irrigation projects in the West. This act turned much of the arid land of the south-western US into farmland under 16 major reclamation projects. (2)
Richard Nixon
The ‘Clean Air Act of 1970’, as a federal law, sets standards of air emissions form stationary and mobile sources. It is open to amendments and has undergone major revisions in 1977 and 1990. This act authorizes the EPA to observe NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards) for protection of public health and welfare. By regulating the emissions of hazardous air pollutants by various major sources, Clean Air Act required them to meet the set MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology) standards within 8 years of their definition for the particular source. (3)
The ‘Clean Water Act of 1972’ was signed to set standards for the U.S. surface water quality and purity by controlling the toxic pollutants and hazardous wastes released as effluent wastes by various sources into water bodies. It has undergone many amendments, most prominently in 1987 to increase controls on toxic pollutants and in 1990 to aadress the hazards of oil spills. Under this act EPA has implemented pollution control programs by setting wastewater standards for industry. (4)
Jimmy Carter
Emergency Natural Gas Act of 1977 was passed in response to the ongoing U.S oil prices. This act introduced natural gas as a viable fuel for commercial and industrial customers nationwide. It authorized the President to declare a natural gas emergency and to require emergency deliveries and transportation of natural gas until the earlier of April 30.1977 or termination of emergency by President. (5)
The ‘Superfund’ is the common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) which was signed by President Carter to initiate the cleaning up of Nation’s wastes sites in order to protect environment as well as health of American citizens. In 1981, the EPA also published a Hazard Ranking System (HRS) in line with the Superfund to determine the site toxicity.(6)
Ronald Reagan
The ‘SARA’ or Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 was signed to amend the Superfund or CERCLA act of 1980. A shortage of funds for the Superfund initiated the SARA and resulted eventually in increasing the Superfund trust fund by $8.5 billion. SARA provided Superfund with new enforcement authorities and settlement tools and required EPA to revise the HRS standards. It reinforced the importance of human health, community involvement, cooperation with state and local laws and authorities, and permanent solutions to hazardous-waste cleanup. (7)
The ‘National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987’ was signed to amend the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, thereby including 12 new home appliances under the established minimum efficiency standards. The act also put into place laws prohibiting manufacturers from making any representations about the energy efficiency of any product on this list without first being tested by Federal testing procedure, and disclosing the results of such tests. (8)
George H. W. Bush
Despite the fact that George H. W. Bush claimed to be an environment friendly President, the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 remains the only notable environmental legislation under his administration.
The ‘Clean Air Act of 1990’ was signed during Bush Senior’s administration making amends to the original Clean Air Act of 1970. This act authorized programs for acid deposition control along with authorizing controls for 189 toxic air pollutants. It also established permit program requirements as well as expanded and modified provision concerning National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). (9)
Bill Clinton
The ‘Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Amendments Act of 1993’ was signed to amend the Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990. This act prohibits through 1995 the export of unprocessed timber from State and other public lands, or the purchase of such timber as a substitute for exported private land timber. It authorizes a State, upon approval of the Secretary, to implement a program in lieu of the Federal one and Established civil penalties for violation of this Act. (10)
The ‘California Desert Protection Act of 1994’ was signed establishing the Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and the Mojave National Preserve in the California desert. The Act authorized Congress to appropriate to the National Park Service and the Bureau of Land Management, for the fiscal year 1995-1999 period, sums not to exceed $36,000,000 more than that provided in fiscal year 1994 for additional administrative and construction costs, and $300,000,000 for land acquisition costs. (11)
George W. Bush
The ‘Clear Skies act of 2003’ was signed by President Bush as an amendment to the Clean Air Act of 1970, however it increased the emission rates of major sources by pulling back the existing emission capping. Clear Skies act cap-and-trade system harnesses the power of technology and innovation to bring about significant reductions in harmful pollutants. Its threefold goal was to cut SO2 emissions by 73%, cut NOx emissions by 67% and cut mercury emissions by 69%by the year 2018. However it was widely criticized for weakening the existing capping of EPA in the name of innovation. (12)
The ‘Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act of 2002’ was signed by President Bush, significantly amending some liability related provision of the Superfund. Brownfields are real property, the expansion, re-development, or re-use of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant. This act affords a defense to prospective purchasers of such brownfields who, upon all appropriate inquiry, discover contamination, by institutionalizing the benefits of a prospective purchaser agreement, thereby encouraging Brownfields development by the government. (13)
Barack Obama
1. The ‘Drinking Water System Security Act of 2009’ was signed to amend the Safe Drinking Water Act revising and expanding requirements for assessments by covered water systems of their vulnerability to intentional acts of sabotage. It also defined "covered water system" as a public water system that is a community water system serving a population greater than 3,300 or that presents a security risk requiring the issuance of regulations. (14)
2. The ‘2010 HCFC regulations’ were signed between December 2009 and January 2010, allocating allowances for the production and import of HCFCs and banning the sale or distribution of pre-charged air-conditioning and refrigeration products and components containing HCFC-22 or HCFC-142b. (15)

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