Implementation of the Investigative Techniques against Terrorists
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Many people consider terrorism to be a method of fighting. Terrorism varies over time, and it changes with different social, political and psychological conditions. According to this, one may state that terrorism is active and constantly alternating. However, in spite of a number of concepts, the act of terrorism is not meaningless and absurd violence. Diverse reasons motivate terrorists, and all of them have various layers of commitment to their respective group. Leading ideologists believe intensively in their causes, frequently they are political or religious, and they stay committed throughout their lives (White, 2011).
State, as well as local law enforcement provides the treatment of persons who have committed a crime or terroristic activity. At the same time, it is supposed that local law enforcement officers work with different offices to debate policies and procedures that will assist their community policing goals. Local agencies are in charge of insurance of the clear understanding of the local law enforcement and legal authority roles. For instance, the Civil Rights Program suggested by FBI agency is the fundamental federal agency that is in charge of investigating declarations concerning criminal breaches of civil rights and includes federal hate crime legislation (Davis & Murphy, 2006).
Within globalization, a dissymmetrical threat environment has originated in which investigators meet hundreds of networks and cultures within any fixed cognizance. Terrorism is a great challenge of the twentieth century for the law enforcement agencies. Besides, there is a great difference between usual criminals and terrorists, as well as methods and ways of their destruction. Thus, investigating techniques applied against criminals are quite diverse from those against criminals. The terrorist is different from criminal because he rules out the possibility of being imprisoned or apprehended, while the criminal assumes such turnaround of events. Typically, terrorists are aware of investigating techniques that is why it gets harder and almost impossible to use them. Terrorists are more attentive, accurate, and suspicious than criminals; if they have the least suspicion that someone may be monitoring them or their home or their car may be bugged, they may even abort the plan of attack or move from the city. Thereby, a clandestine terrorist organization teaches its members how to act in different locations, explains methodologies and techniques used by investigators in order to implementing their programs and plans successfully. Law enforcement officers have to be aware of the fact that within clandestine terrorist organizations they provide all necessary manuals, guides and even pamphlets on how avoid the law enforcement agencies and how to response to the questions in case you are arrested and not to cooperate with authorities, unlike some criminals do (Watts, 2009).
Thus, it is obvious that the terrorist is a person with strong believes and convictions. This minority tries to fight against governmental rules; they try to alter fixed regimes using violence and force actions. Terrorists endeavor to advertize and beget countenance for their beliefs. It is his strong desire and readiness to use violence to convince and constrain the rest of the society to follow his agenda that set the terrorist apart and makes him unique (Dyson, 2008).
As Dyson suggested in his famous Terrorism: An Investigator’s Handbook, investigators should understand that the terrorist is politically dedicated, and his whole existence is associated with his motive. Consequently, for the subject who has submitted to an interview, it is rather easy to reflect on what he has done, and to reject to agree to a second interview. That is why, it is significant for an investigator who has encountered a terrorist ready to submit to an interview to get from him all information about the planned attack and the clandestine terrorist organization in detail. In the issue, investigator must conduct terrorist interviews very carefully and think cautiously of the interview techniques that have to be used to each separate individual terrorist: it may be either “best buddy” or “perfect dummy”, or “good guy-bad guy” or any other interview techniques. After the interview, the officer must explore the obtained information diligently. He should also make efforts to identify evidence, witnesses, and other issues that can be used to authorize the subject’s statements, if he should later disclaim or reject to testify. Investigators must also document interview properly and in time. If they elaborate significant information, the law enforcement officers have to suppose that following use of the information will be challenged in court (Dyson, 2008).
When implementing one or another investing techniques such as, for example, interviewing of members of the terroristic group, their relatives or acquaintances, investigators have to take into consideration the fact that they may have the similar or the same cause as terrorists, or simply sympathize their convictions.
Investigators also understand that in order to employ certain methods of interviewing, they have to simulate everything from indignation and embarrassment to empathy and sympathy in order to be efficient. Although one cannot consider this as dishonesty, it is definitely deceptive. An officer, who specializes in questioning methods, must always implement ethics to what they do. They must assure that the person is acknowledging because he actually perpetrated the crime, if he actually did it or intended to do it, and not because he wants to go out of the interrogation room, or fears that he has to confess to avoid the death punishment. Some persons, who have some kind of information about terrorists or the clandestine group, often fear to cooperate with investigators. As an extra issue, there may be some sympathizers for the whole cause with which the terrorists are connected (Dyson, 2008).
When implementing investigative techniques law enforcement officers have to be conscious of the inner character and the nature of the terrorist. Unspeakable firm discipline is one of the main features of character in all terrorists. Their political motive is the most essential issue in their lives. They understand that security and carefulness is a key to the successful implementation of the cause. A person who has such devotion will take all pains to pursue security methods even if they restricts his capability to act. Terrorists ARE frequently different from common criminals with reference to being aware of the fact that they are under the surveillance. A terroristic person who works and lives “under coverage” will inform his group at once of the crack in the security system. Often, the group will react by breaking off the operation and possibly relocating to another area (Dyson, 2008).
Another important feature is that terrorists are constantly more state and national than they are local in its size. These kinds of subjects travel frequently. These people who often fulfill violent aggressions do not live and work in the place where the attack happens.
Obviously, any terrorist is afraid of being monitored by law enforcement, and this fear increases whenever he takes part in clandestine activities. The behavior of a person who thinks that he is continually under the surveillance becomes extremely cautious. This cuts both ways. While it bounds the terrorist in what he is eager to do and capable of doing, it also complicates immensely his observation implemented by law enforcement officers. The information from the Internet, that concerns both people and things may not always be precise, but it can support an investigator with important clue material. Besides, secrecy is very important for the investigation, as when this or that investigative technique is being implemented, the subject should not even assume that somebody may be monitoring him. For instance, when using recording check technique, the investigator has to be sure that the terrorist will not know anything about this surveillance. This is significant in the investigation of terroristic programs, because clandestine extremists will sometimes disappear if they become conscious that the police may find a guess of their activities (Dyson, 2008).
Nevertheless, there is one more important factor that the investigator should take into consideration. The terroristic case does not stop when the investigation is complete for the law enforcement officer. The judicial power must try, convict, and properly punish the terrorist. If this does not occur, a large amount of time and efforts will have been in vain. Bringing the terrorist to court is also a difficult task. He will usually have people who support his political convictions. In case the terrorist wants to defend himself or hire an attorney, he will obviously not consider an idea of plea bargaining, despite his being eager to choose to go to trial. He will try to interject his political beliefs and convictions during the proceedings. If the terrorist is a part of an anti-government movement, the investigator has to undertake that the defendant would consider him as an agent of the state that the defendant hates. The best weapon that would help an investigator in the court is the well-prepared materials on the case. The law enforcement officer should not suppose the defense to stipulate anything. The investigator has to be ready to provide magnificent testimony, and must be able to experience a rigorous cross-examination.
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The investigators as well as the court staff, including the prosecutor, have to realize that the terrorist is politically motivated. His political beliefs are the matter and aim of his whole life. Unless he has concurs with authorities, which is an extremely rare case, one has to assume that he will try to employ the court as a machine through which to proclaim and propagandize his philosophy. Many terrorists, either left or right extremists, consider the state and government their worst enemies (Dyson, 2008).
Further, law enforcement officers have to be well-prepared to testify in court. They should not be shocked if they get questioned about specific issues of the Constitution or about their “oath of office”. They must also not be surprised with the questions of the legality of the activities they implement during the investigation.
Consequently, the state and government of any society have to be aware of the fact that a law enforcement agency requires their support in the implementation of terroristic cases investigations. The government should consider sketching and performing a counterterrorism program that extends throughout a state for the law enforcement community that assists the state’s homeland security strategy. It is also necessary to build partnerships with main owners of the residential and commercial property and security staff to provide them with tools and resources to recognize and report suspicious activities. One has to understand that it is also necessary to provide technical support and training to local governments on the implementation and management of homeland security admissions (Foster & Cordner, 2005).
Concluding, one can say that there are a variety of factors that have to be taken into consideration when implementing the investigative techniques by the law enforcement officers. Investigators should realize the nature and inner thoughts of the terrorist in order to prevent fulfillment of the plans by the clandestine organization. They must be extremely careful when investigating terroristic programs, since terrorists are well-trained and conscious of the tactics and methodologies of the law enforcement agencies.
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