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Culture

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Particular groups of people, who are united by languages, traditions, ceremonies, religion, beliefs, arts, etiquette, body language and attitudes, form a definite culture. There are many cultures in the world, which make up nations and countries. It is obviously that each culture has its own characteristics, but all of them can be defined according to them. Thus, people can be united by one culture, as well as be separated by different cultures. In the modern era of migration, one can observe the influence of different cultures, especially of the western one on people in different parts of the globe. Some countries have ancient cultures and traditions, while others, which are populated largely by immigrants, may have a mixture of different cultures that make up a country.

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The research asserts that Australians clung to old cultural forms and gave them a conservative, mildly fresh content, rather than creating wholly new. The immigrant society achieved a modest comfort and a greater elbow room for its individual citizens, but the severe Australian environment precluded the growth of a large enough internal market to produce the huge fortunes and relative affluence of the United States (Goldberg & Smith, 1989). The outcome was a poverty of private patronage and the forced dependence of education and the arts on public taxation allocated by government. The Australians persisted in dreams of bettering themselves socially. More avidly perhaps than in any other part of the empire, they sought knighthoods, magistracies, invitations to Government House, presentations at court, and exclusive secondary schooling. Many scholars consider that by profession the society was egalitarian, but even to the present Australians struggled to make themselves genteel homeowners, and thereby made themselves by their similar ambitions and attainments, remarkably homogeneous. Historically Australians are rather pragmatic in business. They are very punctual, result-oriented and practical. Usually they are concentrated in one activity and doing their best to achieve better results.

Few Australians resorted to deeply pious religion. The colonists carried their denominational allegiances with them from the British Isles, and these proved useful cohesive agencies in the new society, as David Hilliard implies Anglicanism (Goldberg & Smith, 1989). Nevertheless, Australians (unlike their American or South African counterparts) never tried to identify providence or Devine grace with national or personal destinies. Religion in Australia underpinned a utilitarian ethical code, and it rarely was practiced or seen as transcendental and redemptive. The research asserts that nowadays, in the conditions of changing national traditions and national vulnerability, the cultural gaps in Australia have assumed a new prominence. An assured cultural inheritance has yet to come – an attitude that justified human existence in its particular world, and promotes its full expression. It might come more quickly if Australians could see a genuine glory in cultural achievements, whether in the arts, or the sciences or public life, or in some other way that recreates the forms of civilized human life and business practices.

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Religion in Australia is seen as a preserve of the respectable, and a weapon of an authoritarian status quo. From this angle tradition in religion means things inherently un-Australian – the Church of England. Many scholars argue that Australia is the first modern country without religious roots (Crawford & Tantiprasut, 2003).  Religious matters have been at the center of some of the great debates in Australian history – in education and politics particularly. The lack of a native religious tradition means lack of local innovation. The small size and the dispersal of the population, Australia continued to be a natural missionary frontier not only for the energies of powerful and dynamic forces in traditional religion, but also for the sect movements of other countries.

The research asserts that before British colonization in 1788, there were thought to be approximately 500 000 Aboriginal people speaking between 200 and 250 languages. Each language group had its own name and area of occupation. The people, who belonged to one group, spoke the same language and shared the same religion, customs and beliefs. Each group could easily be recognized as a nation in itself. This means that Australia has always been a multicultural society – ever since its first occupation (Crawford & Tantiprasut, 2003). Part of the language consisted of the signed language, which was used when different groups came together to trade items, or for social events or other reasons. Language was vital to Aboriginal culture as it was used to transmit important knowledge from one generation to the next. The Europeans developed policies, which had a huge impact on the Australian culture and the lives and traditions of the Aboriginal people. As Australia is a country of immigrants, it has different customs and traditions. There are also differences in etiquette, values and lifestyles. Australians are getting used to behave quite informal. The country does not have many traditions. Many of them are similar to the British ones.  Being a country of immigrants, Australia has a chance to conduct business with many nations in the world understanding their culture and traditions.

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The existing political and legal systems of Australia are founded in the liberal democratic traditions. The Anglo-Celts of Australia did try in some ways to emulate the cultural activities of their home-nations. Nowadays, Australian political and legal systems are dominated by the whites and their values. Such institutions as police, courts and prisons, which exist to enforce the law, are race based. These institutions are run by white people and protect their interests. Criticisms of the legal system in Australia abound and respect for legal institutions has fallen over recent decades (Stacy & Lavarch, 1999). The political price of this disillusionment with legal institutions is, to some extent, worn by political leaders. A counter-point to political distancing from criticisms of the adversarial system is the very fact that the system is seen and can be properly portrayed as being independent from government. The conduct of litigation is in the hands of individual litigants. The court system remains the pre-eminent means of resolving major disputes, particularly those involving important points of law or significant sums of money. Within the court system there have been major initiatives in the field of case management, which reflect a movement away from a pure adversarial model. Case-management techniques ensure the efficient operation of the court system as a whole, rather than a pure concentration on individual cases. 

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